Study links Prediabetes to higher heart attack risk in young adults

RESTON, Va., May 14, 2022 — Young adults with higher than normal blood sugar levels that signal prediabetes were more likely to be hospitalized for a heart attack than their peers with normal blood sugar levels, according to preliminary research to be presented to them. American Heart Association 2022 Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Scientific Sessions. The meeting will be held Friday and Saturday, May 13-14, 2022 in Reston, Va., and will feature the latest research focused on quality of care cardiovascular medical and patient outcomes in the treatment and prevention of heart disease and stroke.

Prediabetes means that blood sugar levels are higher than normal, with fasting blood glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL, although it is not high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is common and increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. According to the National Institutes of Health, approximately 88 million adults in the United States, age 18 or older, have prediabetes, or more than one-third of American adults. Nearly 29 million adults with prediabetes are between the ages of 18 and 44.

“Prediabetes, if left untreated, can have a significant impact on health and can progress to type 2 diabetes, which is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease,” the author said. Akhil Jain, MD, resident physician at Mercy Catholic Medical Center in Darby. , Pa. “With heart attacks increasingly occurring in young adults, our study focused on defining risk factors relevant to this young population, so that future scientific and health policy guidelines would be better informed. even address the cardiovascular disease risks associated with prediabetes.”

The researchers examined the health records of patients in the National Inpatient Sample, which is the largest publicly available database of hospitalizations in the United States.

The analysis found:

  • Of more than 7.8 million young adults hospitalized for a heart attack in 2018, more than 31,000, or 0.4%, had blood sugar levels correlated with prediabetes.
  • Among people with prediabetes, the incidence of heart attacks was 2.15% compared to 0.3% in young adults with normal blood sugar.
  • Adults with prediabetes were more likely than their peers without prediabetes to have high cholesterol (68.1% versus 47.3%, respectively) and obesity (48.9% versus 25.7%, respectively ).
  • Adults with prediabetes who were hospitalized for a heart attack were more likely to be black, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific Islander race or ethnicity.
  • Adults with prediabetes who were hospitalized for a heart attack were more likely to have a higher household income, be hospitalized in urban teaching hospitals, or be hospitalized in the Midwest and Western regions of the United States. United States, compared to adults with heart attack who did not have prediabetes.

“After accounting for various influencing and modifying factors, we found that young adults with prediabetes were 1.7 times more likely to be hospitalized for a heart attack compared to their peers without prediabetes,” Jain said. “Despite higher risks of having a heart attack, young adults with prediabetes did not have a higher incidence of other major adverse cardiovascular events, such as cardiac arrest or stroke.”

Although prediabetes is a precursor to type 2 diabetes and other serious health complications, it can be reversed. Many of the steps taken to prevent prediabetes are the same steps taken to prevent heart disease.

“When blood sugar levels meet the criteria for prediabetes, that’s a red flag for action. It’s important for people with prediabetes to know that lifestyle changes are key to improving their blood sugar levels and overall health. , and eventually reverse prediabetes and prevent type 2 diabetes,” said Eduardo Sanchez, MD, MPH, FAHA, FAAFP, medical director of the American Heart Association, chief prevention officer and clinical lead for the Know Diabetes Initiative. by Heart™ from the Association “Eating a healthy diet, being physically active and losing weight, if necessary, are all significant ways to reverse a diagnosis of prediabetes. For smokers, participation in a cessation program smoking is also extremely important Other lifestyle and behavioral changes, such as stress reduction, may seem small, but they can have a big impact on many different areas of life and can also make a difference.

Extensive research on heart attacks in young adults with prediabetes is lacking and much more needs to be done, according to Jain.

“Our study should be considered a foundation for future research to clearly establish the burden of heart disease in young adults with prediabetes, given the prevalence of prediabetes in nearly one-third of adults in the United States. It is essential to educate young adults about the importance of routine health checkups, including screening for prediabetes, and taking steps to prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular events such as a heart attack,” he said.

Co-authors are Rupak Desai, MBBS; Fariah Asha Haque, MBBS; Advait Vasavada, MBBS; Manisha Jain, MBBS; Rohan Desai, MD; Viralkumar Patel, MD; Saima Shawl, MBBS; Sailaja Sanikommu, MBBS; Samuel Edusa, MD; Navya Sadum, MBBS; and Thomas Alukal, MD Author disclosures are listed in the abstract.

The authors reported no outside funding for this study.

NOTE: The time for presentation of this oral abstract is 8:06 a.m., Saturday, May 14, 2022.

Statements and conclusions of studies presented at American Heart Association scientific meetings are solely those of the study authors and do not necessarily reflect the policy or position of the Association. The Association makes no representations or warranties as to their accuracy or reliability. Abstracts presented at the Association’s scientific meetings are not peer-reviewed, but rather by independent review committees and are considered based on the potential to add to the diversity of scientific issues and viewpoints discussed. during a meeting. Results are considered preliminary until published as a full manuscript in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

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