The association between modifiable healthy lifestyle components and lifetime gain in the general Japanese population

In a recent article published on the Age and agingthe investigators illustrated the effect of adopting a healthy and changing lifestyle on lifetime earnings from middle age through old age.

Study: Impact of adopting a modifiable healthy lifestyle on life gain in middle to old age. Image Credit: Zarko Prusac/Shutterstock

Background

Globally, life expectancy has increased, with several developed countries expecting an average life expectancy of ≥ 85 years by 2030. Existing data suggests that social factors, including socio-demographic position and universal health care, are linked to a longer life expectancy. Meanwhile, several studies have linked the combined effect of certain modifiable variables of a healthy lifestyle, such as moderate physical activity and adequate sleep duration, to longer life expectancy in industrialized countries. These surveys show that adopting a healthy and changing lifestyle can help people live longer.

Nevertheless, many contentious arguments exist on this subject. First, given that national life expectancy has plateaued in recent years in countries with high average life expectancies, it is unclear whether the benefits of healthy lifestyle adjustable variables are lacking. in the elderly or in those with a longer average life expectancy. Second, data on people with multimorbidity and comorbidities are lacking.

About the study

The present research examined whether changing certain lifestyle habits can help people live longer from middle age, even if they have chronic comorbidities at each phase of life. The team explored the influence of a healthy and changing lifestyle on the gain in lifespan in several age groups among more than 40,000 Japanese, well known to have the highest life expectancy in the world. world.

The authors analyzed a prospective group of 26,247 women and 20,373 men between the ages of 40 and 80. They assessed eight modifiable lifestyle variables: consumption of fish, milk and fruit, participation in sports or walking, body mass index (BMI), sleep duration, smoking status and alcohol consumption. The team awarded one point for each adjustable healthy lifestyle item, totaling eight points. They assessed the influence of adopting a modifiable healthy lifestyle on lifelong benefits in people aged 40 to 102 years.

Findings and discussions

The results of the study showed that during the median follow-up period of 21 years, 8,966 people died, including 5,283 women and 3,683 men. This research found that lifestyle had a significant, albeit minor, influence on lifespan gains in middle age. Nevertheless, life expectancy at age 40 was 46.8 (ranging from 45.6 to 48.1) and 51.3 (ranging from 50.0 to 52.6 years) for seven to eight mode points lifestyle for men and women respectively. Moreover, these results were significantly superior to those of previous studies.

The survey revealed new insights into the healthy and changing lifestyle universally achieved from middle age, and an average life expectancy of over 90 and 85 years for women and men, respectively. The potential influence of adherence to a modifiable healthy lifestyle on lifespan gain remained over ≥80 years in individuals with five or more variables, especially older men. Patients with severe comorbidities, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease, and those with multimorbidity across all age groups reaped the most benefit.

Additionally, women, but not men, had the greatest lifetime benefit from abstaining from alcohol. The processes underlying this gender disparity deserve greater attention. Moreover, the chances of survival between the current cohort data and the recent Japanese national census information coincided, implying that these two results were national representatives, although the census baseline survey was conducted in the 1990s.

conclusion

According to the study results, the influence of a changing healthy lifestyle showed a clear exposure-response association, with prolonged average remaining lifespan and increased lifespan in both men and women. , even when they were 80 or older. The authors found that even among people aged ≥80 years, adopting at least six healthy, modifiable lifestyles was linked to increased lifespan, independent of chronic comorbidities at each life stage after mature age. The results suggest that lifestyle modification was essential for long life in people, including elderly patients or those with multimorbidity.

Overall, current median prospective research based on the 21-year-old population has highlighted the relevance of modifiable improvements in healthy lifestyle for overall longevity gains. The authors said that currently presented health benefits on life expectancy or lifespan gain could provide valuable indicators for the general public, health policymakers and medical professionals. Therefore, these results could be useful for designing future public health strategies, health care institutions and policies relevant to industrialized countries and aging.

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