Invisible walls in space could help explain how galaxies arrange themselves

The universe is a varied and complex entity full of unknowns. To date, astrophysicists’ observations of the mapping of the cosmos indicate that small galaxies could be distributed around their host galaxies in random order.

However, new data reveals that these smaller galaxies form thin disks around their hosts, according to a Vice report released on Tuesday. Needless to say, this is confusing because it goes against what previous physics models dictate.

A new form of astrophysics

To make sense of this new information, two researchers from the University of Nottingham came up with an interesting theory. They speculate that smaller galaxies could adapt to invisible “walls” created by a new class of particles called symmetrons.

If true, it could rewrite the laws of astrophysics by introducing a new kind of physics.

The current standard theory, called cold dark matter Lambda (Lambda-CDM), leaves room for only three key elements to exist in the universe: the cosmological constant, cold dark matter, and conventional matter that we know of at the moment. daily. . This would mean that smaller galaxies would be subject to the gravitational pull of larger host galaxies and therefore move in chaotic orbits, a factor that has not been proven by research so far.

Now researchers have devised a theory that would explain the unusual orbits of smaller galaxies that relate to an elusive fifth force.

The creation of invisible walls

This unprecedented force could be responsible for arranging galaxies into disc shapes while particles called symmetrons could use this same space to create “domain walls”, types of walls invisible in space.

“We know we need new particles because we have dark matter and dark energy and so we think we’re going to have to add new particles to our standard model to account for those things,” he said. Aneesh Naik, researcher at the University of Nottingham, and lead author of the study said Vice.

Could Naik’s theory turn out to be true? A lot of work needs to be done before it can be considered conclusive, but it opens the door to some interesting theories.

The study which has not yet been peer reviewed has been published in the Cornell University database.

Abstract:
The “satellite shots” seen around the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies are notoriously difficult to explain from the perspective ΛCDM paradigm. Here, we propose an alternative solution: domain walls appearing in theories with matter-coupled symmetry-breaking scalar fields. Due to matter coupling, satellite galaxies experience fifth forces as they pass through domain walls, leading to a subset of satellites with orbits confined to the plane of the domain wall. We demonstrate this effect using simple simulations of a toy model including point satellites and an infinite domain wall, and explore the effectiveness of various flatness measurements in detecting this effect. We believe this is the first potential explanation for “new physics” in the observed planes of satellites that does not suppress dark matter.

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